On the back of phone jacks, there are usually four connections—one red, one green, one black, and one yellow. The red and green “Christmas trees” wires power the first, or primary, line in your home. The black and yellow “bumble bees” wires don’t get used unless a second line is added to your home. Adding a second line to your home is an easy task that even the least experienced do-it-yourselfer can do without costly interference from a telephone technician. First, let’s look a few scenarios where someone may need a second line in their home: A home office may require a dedicated line for business purposes. You may have children who need their own line so that they stop tying up the main phone line. Many people like having a dedicated number for faxes.
Vodavi Digital telephone User Manual
Telephone Circuits Telephone In-Use Indicator When a new computer modem enters the household, the demands on the home phone line skyrockets. The Internet surfer can use phone time on a par with the most talkative teenager. And the computer modem user can be quite sensitive about his privacy: The phone wiring may be modified so that the modem is always in control by connecting the phone line directly to the modem and connecting the rest of the phones to the modem’s “phone” jack.
But this solution gives the computer user too much power over the phone line and it doesn’t solve the problem if two computers share a single line. Here is a simple blinking LED circuit which will alert users when the line is in use before the receiver is lifted.
a set of mathematical elements that is closed under two binary operations of which the first forms a commutative group with the set and the second is associative over the set and is distributive with respect to the first operation.
Lawful interception The contracts or licenses by which the state controls telephone companies often require that the companies must provide access to tapping lines to law enforcement. Now that many exchanges have been converted to digital technology, tapping is far simpler and can be ordered remotely by computer. If the tap is implemented at a digital switch , the switching computer simply copies the digitized bits that represent the phone conversation to a second line and it is impossible to tell whether a line is being tapped.
A well-designed tap installed on a phone wire can be difficult to detect. In some instances some law enforcement may be able to even access a mobile phone’s internal microphone even while it isn’t actively being used on a phone call unless the battery is removed or drained. These data can be accessed by security services, often with fewer legal restrictions than for a tap.
This information used to be collected using special equipment known as pen registers and trap and trace devices and U.
Long Distance Plans
See Article History Alternative Title: The telephone is inexpensive, is simple to operate, and offers its users an immediate, personal type of communication that cannot be obtained through any other medium. As a result, it has become the most widely used telecommunications device in the world. Billions of telephone sets are in use around the world. Alexander Graham Bell, who patented the telephone in , inaugurating the 1, km mile telephone link between New York City and Chicago on October 18, In addition it describes the development of what is known as the public switched telephone network PSTN.
Phreaking is a slang term coined to describe the activity of a culture of people who study, experiment with, or explore telecommunication systems, such as equipment and systems connected to public telephone networks. The term phreak is a sensational spelling of the word freak with the ph-from phone, and may also refer to the use of various audio frequencies to manipulate a phone system.
At first glance all the colored wires associated with your telephone wiring may seem confusing. Although there is an industry standard for use of the colored conductors, the truth is any two conductors regardless of their color will work as long as the same two are hooked up at each end. Having said that I do recommend that whenever it is possible, stay with the industry standard color code. Standard Telephone Wiring Color Code. There is a possibility of two color codes that you may find in your home, I will cover both of them but only up to a 4 pair cable which consists of 8 conductors.
The cable in your home may consist of only 2 pairs, 3 pairs or may be a 4 pair cable. Even though larger cables are made, it is unlikely that you would find them in your home. Color Code One is the old solid color code. Not used in new installations anymore. Each pair can be used as a phone line, so in this example you can use this cable for up to four phone lines.
The primary color of the conductor is the first color listed, the second color is the tracer.
Do it yourself home telephone wiring.
By Brother Nathanael Kapner Copyright There are so many unanswered questions regarding the Sandy Hook killings that it not only boggles the mind but inspires anger and legitimate outrage. Even Lieutenant Paul Vance, head of the Connecticut State Troopers, admits that much information surrounding the crime is being withheld. But there also some issues that we need to keep the cards close to the chest. And what about the first responders?
Make sure this fits by entering your model number.; Detects dial tone and polarity, places and receives calls, indicates line voltage and current, and has a 2-way speakerphone for hands-free conversation during testing of telephone lines.
This article featured Engressia and John Draper prominently, synonymising their names with phreaking. The article also attracted the interest of other soon-to-be phreaks, such as Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs , who went on to found Apple Computer. In the first issue of YIPL, writers included a “shout-out” to all of the phreakers who provided technological information for the newsletter: YIPL believes that education alone cannot affect the System, but education can be an invaluable tool for those willing to use it.
Specifically, YIPL will show you why something must be done immediately in regard, of course, to the improper control of the communication in this country by none other than bell telephone company. TAP ended publication in due mostly to a break-in and arson at Tom Edison’s residence in A controversially suppressed article “How to Build a ‘Phone Phreaks’ box” in Ramparts Magazine June, touched off a firestorm of interest in phreaking.
This article published simple schematic plans of a “black box” used to make free long-distance phone calls, and included a very short parts list that could be used to construct one. Bell sued Ramparts, forcing the magazine to pull all copies from shelves, but not before numerous copies were sold and many regular subscribers received them.
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Here are some more pictures of an original CarterFone click to see a bigger version: He says his is an acoustic coupler with a twist, a bar that both opens the line and dials the number. A standard set is placed in a tray, and a bar goes over the switchhook cradle. The mobile user had a telephone dial that pulsed a tone, this pulsed the bar and thus dialed the number.
The radios were half-duplex, this is to say, you could talk or listen, one or the other. The middle page includes a picture of an IMTS type phone sitting on the “hump” by the front seat of a Cadillac
Working components of the telephone. As it has since its early years, the telephone instrument is made up of the following functional components: a power source, a switch hook, a dialer, a ringer, a transmitter, a receiver, and an anti-sidetone circuit.
Making a telephone call no longer should conjure up visions of operators connecting cables by hand or even of electrical signals causing relays to click into place and effect connections during dialing. Within 20 years of the Bell patent, the telephone instrument, as modified by Thomas Watson , Emil Berliner , Thomas Edison , and others, acquired a functional design that has not changed fundamentally in more than a century. Since the invention of the transistor in , metal wiring and other heavy hardware have been replaced by lightweight and compact microcircuitry.
Such advances supplement, but do not replace, the basic telephone design. Alexander Graham Bell demonstrating the ability of the telephone to transmit sound by electricity from Salem to Boston, Mass. Library of Congress, Washington, D. Working components of the telephone As it has since its early years, the telephone instrument is made up of the following functional components: These components are described in turn below.
The first sources were batteries located in the telephone instruments themselves, but since the s current has been generated at the local switching office. The current is supplied through a two-wire circuit called the local loop. The standard voltage is 48 volts.
Telephones by Chris Woodford. It was one of those moments when the world changes forever. On March 10, , Thomas Watson was staring at a strange piece of electrical apparatus when he heard it speak the words that made history:
Telephone tapping (also wire tapping or wiretapping in American English) is the monitoring of telephone and Internet conversations by a third party, often by covert means. The wire tap received its name because, historically, the monitoring connection was an actual electrical tap on the telephone line.
Even though I found a couple of conflicts between sources over exact dates, for the most part these can be considered accurate. Color coded dates in the timeline indicate which reference was used for each event. DeWitt Clinton’s inaugural trip through the Erie Canal. It took 80 minutes. They obtained permission to set up a signaling system so they could send messages to each other.
Their semaphore system consisted of movable arms on a pole whose positions denoted letters of the alphabet. Napoleon thought this was a great idea. Soon there were semaphore signaling systems covering the main cities of France. Semaphore signaling spread to Italy, Germany and Russia. Thousands of men were employed manning the stations. Code books came into play so that whole sentences could be represented by a few characters. Semaphores weren’t very successful in England because of the fog and smog caused by the Industrial Revolution.
Claude Chappe headed France’s system for 30 years and then was “retired” when a new administration came into power. There were semaphore systems in the U.
Telephone line audio interface circuits
Lamps With the exception of the lamps, all of the above are a safety hazard in addition to being very likely to make the phone line malfunction. In particular polarized capacitors or any cap rated at less than volts DC working volts , and batteries of any kind, should be avoided because of the potential for a an explosion. The other devices are merely a fire hazard. The resistors used in the real telephone circuits must have enough power handling capacity and be used so that they do not cause fire hazard non-flammable resistors situated away from flammable materials.
Telephone History Pages, Antique Telephone & Collector’s Items from the Telecom Experts at
Synchronization in telecommunications Frame synchronization is necessary to identify the timeslots within each channel frame. Synchronization takes place by allocating a framing, or rd, bit. A superframe consists of twelve consecutive bit frames, whereas an extended superframe consists of twenty-four consecutive bit frames of data. Due to the unique bit sequences exchanged, the framing schemes are not compatible with each other. Connectivity and alarms[ edit ] This section does not cite any sources.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message Connectivity refers to the ability of the digital carrier to carry customer data from either end to the other. In some cases, the connectivity may be lost in one direction and maintained in the other.
Adding a Second Line to Your Existing Phone Jacks
Angle shot of insides: Camera angle 1 and 2 Some sources for telephone line simulators are: These sources are only provided here as a convenience and are not in anyway endorsed by or connected with the webmaster of this web site.
Standard Telephone Wiring Color Code. There is a possibility of two color codes that you may find in your home, I will cover both of them but only up to a 4 pair cable which consists of 8 conductors.
My advice here is aimed towards connecting both your existing line Line 1 and your new second line Line 2 on new or existing jacks at the locations of your existing jacks. This will provide you the most flexibility in determining how to use your expanded phone service. This advice is only applicable if your phone cable is normal station cable with two or more pairs of wire. Most people will be able to add a second line to their existing jacks without installing any additional cable.
Two wires one “pair” are needed for most phone line connections. Normal station cable what your phone tech may call “JK” used for residential installations has four wires two “pair”. Single line installations only use one pair, leaving the second pair available for the second line. You may find that your home was originally wired with both pairs connected to the jacks and is essentially “two-line ready”.
If you plan to “do it yourself”, I recommend you consider accomplishing all of your rewiring before actually ordering your second line from the phone company. This work is all fairly simple, but you’ll find that it may take more time than expected to accomplish. By doing your wiring first, you’ll be able to start using your second line when it is connected by the phone company.
This will also permit you to request professional assistance, if needed, before you start paying for a second line that you would not be able to use until the jacks are rewired. However, you should contact your phone company to ensure that additional line service will be available when you are ready to order it before proceeding with rewiring your jacks.
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Reconstruction The telephone network In order to understand the many concepts represented in the public switched telephone network PSTN , it is helpful to review the processes that take place in the making of a single call on a traditional wired telephone. The central office, which has been monitoring the telephone line continuously a process known as attending , responds with a dial tone.
If the call is intraoffice, the central office switch will handle the entire call process. If the call is interoffice, it will be directed either to a nearby central office or to a distant central office via a long-distance network. In the case of interoffice calls, a separate signaling network is employed to coordinate the call progression through a multitude of switches and telephone trunks.
“Christmas trees and bumble bees.” No, it’s not a strange nursery rhyme; it’s how you remember how your phone lines are distributed. On the back of phone jacks, there are usually four connections—one red, one green, one black, and one yellow.
Build your own inductive telephone tap! Unlike most of the junk on the Internet, this actually works! So it’s time once again for the Science Fair and you’re just plain out of ideas. You need something that is educational, based on scientific principles, and what’s most important actually works. Of course, it doesn’t hurt for the project to be unique. Only so many kids can cross-breed radishes until they’re rainbow-striped, after all Well, I have just the solution.
We’re going to build an inductive telephone tap that will allow us to listen to telephone conversations nearly undetectably. In fact, we’re going to learn a lot of things in carrying out this project. We’ll learn how telephones work, what electrical induction is, and how the professionals find wiretapping and eavesdropping devices.
There will also be plenty of opportunity for you to develop your own questions and carry out some independent research if you know what I mean, and I think that you do. Ready to get to it? Well, there’s “good news and bad news.